1. Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight
Convincing evidence shows that weight gain and obesity increases the risk of a number of cancers, including bowel and breast cancer.
Maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular physical activity to help keep your risk lower.
2. Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day
There is strong evidence that physical activity protects against cancers including bowel and breast cancer. Being physically active is also key to maintaining a healthy weight.
Any type of activity counts – the more you do the better! Try to build some into your everyday life.
3. Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods (particularly processed foods high in added sugar, or low in fibre, or high in fat)
Energy-dense foods are high in fats and/or sugars and can be low in nutrients. These foods increase the risk of obesity and therefore cancer. Sugary drinks, such as colas and fruit squashes can also contribute to weight gain. Fruit juices, even without added sugar, are likely to have a similar effect, so try not to drink them in large quantities.
Try to eat lower energy-dense foods such as vegetables, fruits and wholegrains instead. Opt for water or unsweetened tea or coffee in place of sugary drinks.
4. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains and pulses such as beans
Evidence shows that vegetables, fruits and other foods containing dietary fibre (such as wholegrains and pulses) may protect against a range of cancers including mouth, stomach and bowel cancer. They also help to protect against weight gain and obesity.
As well as eating your 5 A DAY, try to include wholegrains (e.g. brown rice, wholemeal bread and pasta) and/or pulses with every meal.
5. Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) and avoid processed meats
There is strong evidence that red and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer, and that there is no amount of processed meat that can be confidently shown not to increase risk.
Aim to limit intake of red meat to less than 500g cooked weight (about 700-750g raw weight) a week. Try to avoid processed meats such as bacon, ham, salami, corned beef and some sausages.
6. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day
Since the 1997 report, the evidence that alcoholic drinks can increase the risk of a number of cancers, including breast and colon cancer, is much stronger.
Any alcohol consumption can increase your risk of cancer, though there is some evidence to suggest that small amounts of alcohol can help protect against heart disease. Therefore, if you choose to drink, do so in moderation.
7. Limit consumption of salty foods and food processed with salt (sodium)
Evidence shows that salt and salt-preserved foods probably cause stomach cancer.
Try to use herbs and spices to flavour your food and remember that processed foods, including bread and breakfast cereals, can contain large amounts of salt.
8. Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer
Research shows that high-dose nutrient supplements can affect our risk of cancer, so it's best to opt for a balanced diet without supplements.
However, supplements are advisable for some groups of people (see our recommendations booklet to learn more).
Special Population Recommendations
Recommendations 9 and 10 don’t apply to everyone, but if they are relevant to you, it’s best to follow them.
9. It's best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months and then add other liquids and foods
Strong evidence shows that breastfeeding protects mothers against
breast cancer and babies from excess weight gain.
|0. After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the recommendations for cancer prevention |
The Report found growing evidence that maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.
|And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco|
Smoking or using tobacco in any form increases the risk of cancer and other serious diseases.
To find out how to incorporate the recommendations into your everyday life visit WCRF UK’s
Guidelines for Cancer Prevention.