Wednesday, 22 August 2012

Mark P. Mattson talks about Intermittent Energy Fasting

reposted from: via 17th August 2012

crabsallover highlightskey pointscomments / links.

Prof. Mark P. Mattson (ChNat. Inst. Ageing in Baltimore): CR in animals reduces cancer, kidney disease, diabetes - all animals live longer. Animals in wild are geered to feast or famine so the human 3 meals a day is abnormal from evolutionary standpoint. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) (eg 2 days a week have low calorie intake) imitates evolution. IER v daily CR (calorie restricted every day): IER has more powerful effects for nerve cells to resist stress and disease.

With IER before animals become symptomatic can protect brain: reduces Amyloid accumulation (gunk ceases up the brain) of Alzheimers disease and preserves dopamine producing neurons which reduces Parkinsons disease. On alternate Day Fasting, before symptoms become symtomatic, mice live 30% longer on IER.

IER reduced Oxidative stress (reduces rusting of brain ie reduced free radicals), reduced local inflammation (reduced cytokines eg tumour necrosis factor TNF - immune system less active so brain ages less).

Fasting increases production of protein neurotrophic factors (causes nerve cells to grow), increases stem cell Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF wiki) which increases production of nerve cells (neurogenesis). With increased exercise AND IEF, BDNF:-

  1. Strengthens neuron synapses - maintains cognitive function
  2. Increases antioxidant enzymes (counteract free radicals), suppresses free radicals and inflammation

Muscle Analogy

This increase in stress in your brain is analogous to exciting muscle cells which make them stronger and contract. Nerve cells when exited send signal to next neuron, become more active when they are hungry.  With mild stress - nerve cells become more active and this is evolutionary important.

Downside of IER 

Reduced wound healing, increased risk of infection for cave men ancestors.

Human Trials

In breast tumour patients (with Michelle Harvie, Wythenshawe Hospital, Uni Manchester reported by Daily Mail), Press Release, full article Int. Journal of Obesity. 100 subjects split into 3 groups. 1) control diet ate normally, 2) 15% reduction in calories (CER) 3) 5:2 day fast diet (IER) - had less insulin resistance than other groups.

IER and CER are equally effective for weight loss, comparable reductions in: leptin, C-reactive protein, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, increased IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, negligible changes in total and free IGF-1.

on IER:-
  1. sugar reaching breast cells decreased 
    1. breast cells divide less frequently, reducing chances of cancer
  2. had fewer cancer-causing hormones in their blood six months later 
    1. Leptin fell by 40 per cent 
    2. Insulin fell by 25 per cent
    3. C-Reactive Protein fell by 15 per cent

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